Jean Moulin, the mayor of Chartes,
France, who escaped to England early in the conflict, parachutes
back into the country in an effort to organize and unify the
feuding Resistance factions.
The Irish Premier, de Valera
protests at the arrival of US troops in Ulster. President Roosevelt
is said to be amazed by this.
Vidkun Quisling visits Berlin.
General Gamelin, Leon Blum and Paul
Reynaud are put on trial at Riom by the Vichy government, charged
with being responsible for the French defeat of 1940. The trial
is never concluded. Blum defends himself so brilliantly that
the trial is suspended. He remains a prisoner until 1945.
A combined services
parachute operation to destroy the radar station at Bruneval
in North France succeeds.
Vichy announces that 'official'
German figures put the number of French arrested in 1941 at
5,390 and executions at more than 250.
Naval and Commando raid against St.
Laval returns to power
in Vichy as the ‘Chief of Government with special powers’.
Thirty five hostages shot in Paris.
The French resistance attacks the German
HQ at Arras with hand grenades.
An assassination attempt on Doriol,
head of the French Fascists fails. Laval speaks of increased
At what turns out to be its last meeting,
the puppet Nazi Reichstag passes legislation proclaiming Hitler
"Supreme Judge of the German People," formalising
the Fuhrer's position as being above the reach of the law.
The Belgian resistance destroys Tenderloo
chemical works, killing more that 250. Executions by the Germans
reported to be running at 25-30 a month in Belgium.
Hitler and Mussolini meet at Berchtesgaden
to discuss future axis strategy in North Africa and the Mediterranean,
the main objectives being the reduction of Malta and the seizure
of the Suez Canal.
All 152 members of a student
group that had displayed anti-Nazi posters in Berlin on May
18, are shot.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
is appointed to command US forces in the European Theatre.
Himmler is made responsible
for order in Belgium and Holland.
Now codenamed operation 'Jubilee',
some 6,100 British and Canadian troops conduct a raid-in-force
against the port of Dieppe, which ends in disaster. In less
than 10 hours of battle, the British and Canadian forces lose
1,380 KIA, 1,600 wounded, 2,000 made prisoner. The RAF loses
107 aircraft and the Royal Navy lose a destroyer. Germans loses
are 345 dead or missing and 268 wounded, with total Luftwaffe
losses being just 40 aircraft. Civilian casualties are put at
48 dead and 100 wounded.
The formal annexation of
Luxembourg to Reich leads to a general strike. Use of French
accents in the written Luxembourg dialect is now liable to fines.
Hitler orders German troops
to shoot all captured allied commandos, ‘to the last man’.
On the anniversary of the
1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Hitler tells his old comrades
that Stalingrad is practically in German hands, adding that
he didn't want to take that city just because it happens to
bear the name of Stalin.
German forces begin the occupation
of those parts of France controlled by the Vichy government.
In a letter to Marshal Petain, Hitler declares that the purpose
of this move is "to protect France" against the allies.
Continuing their occupation of Vichy
France, German troops take the naval base of Toulon.
British Commandos make
daring raid on Bordeaux harbour, rowing 50 miles up the River
Gironde and attaching limpet mines to German shipping.
The Red Cross are now spending £375,000
per month on food parcels for allied POWs.