With smoke still pouring from a bombed out town, a unit of German Pzkpfw 38(t) tanks drives on into Russia.
Eastern Europe!
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10/01/1941 Germany and the Soviet Union sign a fresh treaty, which recognises their existing spheres of influence and affirms current trade agreements.
20/01/1941 With Hitler's tacit support, Marshal Antonescu suppresses a rebellion by the Iron Guard in Romania.
 
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03/02/1941 Hitler reviews the plans for Operation 'Barbarossa', as German intelligence estimates that 155 Red Army divisions are deployed in western Russia against just 116 German and Axis divisions. The starting date is again confirmed as the 15th May 1941.
15/02/1941
Great Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with Romania as it is now clear that the Romanians are firmly allied to the Germans.
 
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07/04/1941 Great Britain severs diplomatic relations with Hungary.
13/04/1941 A 5 year Neutrality Pact is signed in Moscow between the Soviet Union and Japan.
23/04/1941 The German build up for Operation 'Barbarossa' continues with 59 divisions now deployed along the border with the Soviet Union.
 
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06/05/1941 Stalin declares himself 'Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars'.
 
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05/06/1941 Over 100 German divisions have now been deployed along Germanys frontier with the Soviet Union.
06/06/1941 Hitler issues a directive for the implementation of the Kommissarbefehl (Commissar Order) which calls for the summary execution of all Soviet political commissars attached to the Red Army. This order is tacitly disobeyed by most German army and corps commanders who deem it contrary to German military custom and tradition.
13/06/1941 Russian news agency Tass, denies German threat on its borders and calls rumours ‘absurd and obviously sheer hostile propaganda.’ The Russians begin to arrest those in the Baltic States who might support a German occupation. In all, about 50,000 are rounded up, with the majority never to be seen alive again.
14/06/1941 Hitler meets with his top generals to discuss matters concerning the upcoming campaign against the Soviet Union. The 'Lucy' spy ring passes information to the Soviet Union, detailing the start date for a German attack as the 22nd June.
15/06/1941

German formation commanders receive confirmation of the date and time that the attack on the Soviet Union will begin. This is to be 03:30 on the 22nd June 1941. German Panzer units begin to move up to their final jump-off positions. [View Battle Plan]

19/06/1941 The Russians order a black-out of all major cities and towns near the border. However, they still do not allow their troops to take up battle positions, in spite of information given by two German deserters of an imminent attack.
22/06/1941 Just after midnight the Red Army is given orders to come to combat readiness, although they were still not allowed to occupy battle positions. At 3:15am, Operation 'Barbarossa' [View Battle Plan] begins with German and Axis forces comprising 183 divisions (3,500,000 men), 3,350 tanks, 7,184 guns and 1,945 aircraft launching the biggest military operation in history on an 1,800-mile front from 'Finland to the Black Sea'. Three Army Groups supported by powerful Panzer armies and Luftwaffe bomber fleets, Army Group South (von Rundstedt) with Panzer Group 1 (von Kleist), Army Group Centre (von Bock) with Panzer Groups 2 (Guderian) and 3 (Hoth), and Army Group North (von Leeb) with Panzer Group 4 (Hoepner), go into action against 132 Soviet divisions (2,500,000 men), 20,000 tanks and 7,700 aircraft. The overall objective of the campaign is to destroy the Soviet forces in western Russia by the Autumn and to occupy the European part of the Soviet Union up to the line Archangel - Urals - Volga - Astrakhan. By the end of the first day, the Luftwaffe had destroyed 800 Soviet aircraft on the ground at 60 airfields and 400 in the air. The Red Army along the border seemed unprepared for the assault and offered only limited resistance, which allows the Panzer divisions to advance up to 50 miles and maul 12 Soviet divisions.
23/06/1941 The Red Army launches an armoured counter-attack near Tilsit in Lithuania, but this is repulsed with heavy losses. German forces cross the River Bug, bypassing Brest-Litovsk from the North and South and penetrating 50 miles into Russian occupied Poland. Slovakia declares war on the Soviet Union.
24/06/1941 Army Group North sweeps into Lithuania and White Russia, taking Vilna and Kaunas. Hungary breaks off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
25/06/1941 Major Russian forces are close to being surrounded in the Bialystok area by Panzer units of Army Group Centre. Panzer Group 1 captures Lutsk and Dubno, in what was before September 1939 eastern Poland.
26/06/1941 German forces of Army Group North capture Dünaburg in Latvia. The Luftwaffe carries out raids on Leningrad. Heavy fighting in the Bialystok area as the German Panzer’s units close the pocket.
27/06/1941 German forces capture Bobruisk and Przemysl. Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union and agrees to send troops to help Army Group South.
28/06/1941 Army Group Centre's Panzer Groups meet to the east of Minsk, capturing the city and trapping 27 Red Army divisions in a pocket to the west. Army Group South meets tougher than expected resistance in its drive through the southern Ukraine.
29/06/1941 Russian Defence Committee is formed with Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, Malenkov and Beria.
30/06/1941 Army Group Centre continues to constrict the Bialystok pocket to the west of Minsk. Pilots of Luftwaffe fighter wing JG-51 down 100 Soviet bombers attacking German panzer forces east of Minsk, with its CO, Oberst Mölders, accounting for 5 of them. German forces of Army Group South capture Lemberg (Lvov).
 
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01/07/1941 Armoured forces of Panzer Group 4 of Army Group North cross the Dvina and capture Riga. Units of Panzer Group 2 of Army Group Centre reaches the Berezina near Borisov.
02/07/1941 Advanced units of Panzer Group 4 force their way through the Stalin line near Ostrov on the Latvian border. Troops of the German 11th, Romanian 3rd and 4th Armies begin an offensive from Moldavia toward Vinnitsa and the Black Sea port of Odessa.
03/07/1941 For the first time since the beginning of the German attack on the Soviet Union, Stalin speaks to the Russian people over the radio. Demanding utmost resistance 'in our patriotic war against German Fascism' and says 'A grave threat hangs over our country.' He calls for a policy of scorched earth if the Red Army is forced to yield ground and the formation of 'people's partisan' groups behind enemy lines, as well as the summary execution of all cowards and shirkers. Army Group Centre eradicates the Bialystok pocket capturing 290,000 prisoners, 2,500 tanks, 1,500 guns in the process.
04/07/1941 Units of Army Group Centre capture Ostrov.
05/07/1941 Units of German 6th Army break through the Stalin Line East of Lvov, while Panzer Group 1 continues its advance toward Zhitomir and Berdichev in the Ukraine.
06/07/1941 Army Group North continues its advance, reaching a line from Lake Peipus through Reval to Parun, North of the Gulf of Riga.
08/07/1941 Litvinov Broadcasts in English from Moscow saying that the UK and Russia must strike at Germany together. Panzer Group 4 of Army Group North captures Pskov and advances toward Novgorod and Leningrad.
09/07/1941 Panzer Group 3 defeats Russian blocking forces and capture Vitebsk.
10/07/1941 Panzer Group 1 repulses a violent Soviet counter-attack in the area of Korosten to the west of Kiev.
11/07/1941 Stalin replaces 3 major Soviet commanders appointing Voroshilov for the northern, Timoshenko for the central and Budjenny for the southern fronts. Armoured units of Panzer Group 1 advance within 10 miles of Kiev.
12/07/1941 The Soviet Union and Great Britain sign a mutual assistance pact declaring that neither state will make a separate peace with the axis powers.
13/07/1941 Troops of Army Group North continue their advance from Pskov toward Luga, 75 miles from Leningrad.
14/07/1941 Army Group North is now only 80 miles from Leningrad.
15/07/1941 Army Group Centre encircles Smolensk, along with a large body of Russians to the west of the City.
16/07/1941 Army Group South traps 20 Russians divisions in a pocket at Uman.
19/07/1941 Hitler issues Directive No.33. This states that Moscow is no longer the priority, but that once the Smolensk pocket has been reduced, then Army Group Centre is to hand over Panzer Group 3 to Army Group North and Panzer Group 2 to Army Group South. This will enable the flanks to be secured by capturing Leningrad in the North and overrunning the Ukraine in the South.
20/07/1941 Stalin appoints himself Defence Commissar. USSR resumes diplomatic relations with German occupied countries.
22/07/1941 The Luftwaffe launches its first bombing raid on Moscow with 127 aircraft, but achieve minimal results.
23/07/1941 Brest-Litovsk is taken by German troops after a month-long siege.
26/07/1941 Three Soviet armies are encircled and destroyed in the Mogilev area.
27/07/1941 German troops liberate Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Guderian's Panzer Group 2 is removed from its subordination to von Kluge's 4th Army and put directly under the control of Army Group Centre. This is due to severe disagreements between the von Kluge and Guderian, which are disabling operations. Fierce battles rage 25 miles to the east of Smolensk.
28/07/1941 German troops begin to eliminate the Russian forces trapped in the pocket to the west of Smolensk.
29/07/1941 Marshal Zhukov resigns as Russian Chief of Staff.
31/07/1941 Army Group North, which is slowly advancing toward Leningrad, reaches Lake Ilmen, to the south of Novgorod. However, its troops are very fatigued due to the marshes and heavily wooded terrain.
 
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01/08/1941 Army Group Centre continues its liquidation of the Smolensk pocket. Soviet troops put up fierce resistance near Orsha and Vitebsk west of Smolensk. A powerful counter-offensive is launched at Gomel south of Mogilev against German bridgeheads over the Dnieper River.
03/08/1941 38,000 Soviet prisoners are taken by Army Group Centre after the Roslavl battle of encirclement.
05/08/1941 German troops capture Smolensk and take 310,000 Red Army prisoners as the remnants of 16th and 20th Armies surrender.
07/08/1941 Joseph Stalin appoints himself Generalissimo of the Red Army.
08/08/1941 Uman pocket eliminated and 103,000 Russian prisoners taken by the Germans.
09/08/1941 German Army Group South resumes its offensive to the east, along the river Bug, with 11th and 17th Armies.
12/08/1941 Hitler issues Directive No.34 which temporarily abandons Moscow as an objective in favour of the Ukraine. Soviet forces counterattack at Staraya Russa south of Lake Ilmen.
16/08/1941 Stalin acknowledges UK and US aid plan and agrees to the ‘apportionment of our joint resources’. Anglo-Soviet exchange agreement signed. 56th Panzer Korps of Panzer Group 4 takes Novgorod on the road to Leningrad. German and Romanian forces of Army Group South captures Nikolaev, an important Soviet naval base on the Black Sea.
17/08/1941 Army Group North in its drive toward Leningrad captures Narva. The Romanians seal off and begin a siege of the Black Sea port of Odessa.
18/08/1941 Russians withdraw across the Dnieper River, allowing the Panzer Group 1 to establish a bridgehead across the river at Zaporozhe, in the Ukraine.
19/08/1941 South of Lake Illmen, the Soviet 38th Army is close to outflanking the German 10th Corps, but the German 56th Panzer Corps counterattacks the Soviets and rolls through their positions.
20/08/1941 German 11th Army captures Kherson on the Black Sea and opens the gate to the Crimea. German 11th Army captures Kherson on the Black Sea and opens the gate to the Crimea.
21/08/1941 Marshal Voroshilov tells the people of Leningrad to defend their city to the last. Hitler orders the investment, not capture, of Leningrad, and the transfer of several divisions from the North and Centre to capture the Crimea and the Donets basin, an industrial region vital to the Soviet war effort.
24/08/1941 Russians counter-attack in the Gomel sector. Heavy Romanian losses around Odessa.
25/08/1941 Panzer Group 2, along with the 2nd Army, attack southeast from their positions around Gomel and Bryansk, in an attempt to link up with units of Army Group South and encircle Kiev. Panzer Group 1 begins a breakout towards the north from its bridgeheads across the Dnieper, with the aim of linking up with units of Army Group Centre east of Kiev. The German 6th Army engages the bulk of the Soviet forces gathered around Kiev to stop them from retreating.
26/08/1941 German losses on Russian Front reach 440,000, more than in the entire war before the 22nd June 1941. Army Group North surrounds and destroys the Soviet forces in the area of Velikije Luki.
27/08/1941 Army Group North captures Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
30/08/1941 The German 20th Panzer Division destroys the northern Front's already broken Soviet 48th Army, and takes the town of Mga, 40kms to the Southeast of Leningrad.
31/08/1941 Army Group South manages to move some of 17th Army across the Dnieper river Southeast of Kremenchug.
 
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06/09/1941 Hitler’s War Directive No. 35 orders the capture of Moscow after the Ukraine operation has been completed.
07/09/1941 The German 6th Army achieves a breakthrough at Konotop in the Ukraine.
08/09/1941 Leningrad is now completely surrounded after German troops close the land bridge at Schluesselburg. The Russians announce gains near Smolensk and claim eight German divisions have been beaten.
11/09/1941 German order of the day says Leningrad must be taken quickly, regardless of cost. Zhukov takes command of city.
12/09/1941 The first snow reported on Russian Front. German forces in the Kremenchug bridgehead across the Dnieper in the Ukraine and advance north to aid in the encirclement of Kiev.
13/09/1941 German High Command announces that Russian POWs will get less rations than other nationalities.
14/09/1941 Army Group Centre completes the encirclement of two Soviet armies at Kiev.
15/09/1941 Siege of Leningrad begins.
16/09/1941 Guderian’s Panzer Group 2 and Kleist’s Panzer Group 1 meet east of Kiev, trapping five Red Armies.
18/09/1941 Russians conscript all men aged 16 - 50. Units of Army Group South capture Poltava in the Ukraine. The Russians evacuate Kiev, but the ‘fight to the death’ continues in the area for a week.
19/09/1941 Germans forces take the ruins of Kiev, along with a massive haul of 600,000 prisoners, 2,500 tanks and 1,000 guns.
24/09/1941 Army Group South begins an offensive against the vital land bridge to the Crimea at Perekop.
25/09/1941 Hitler orders all attacks by Army Group North on Leningrad stopped and the city to be besieged and starved-out. After its foreseen surrender, the city is to be leveled.
26/09/1941 German High Command final records show the capture of 665,000 prisoners in the Kiev operations.
27/09/1941 The first of the autumn rains fall and quickly turns the ground to mud.
28/09/1941 A Soviet-British-US conference opens in Moscow to discuss western aid to Russia. Lord Beaverbrook represents Britain and Averell Harriman the USA.
29/09/1941 The attacks by Army Group South (von Rundstedt) to force an entry into the Crimea are halted.
30/09/1941 As part of operation 'Typhoon' [View Battle Plan] Guderian's Panzer Group 2 opens its offensive against Moscow, 2 days ahead of the rest of Army Group Centre and makes 50-miles in its advance towards Orel.
 
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01/10/1941 The Soviet-British-US conference in Moscow concludes with a protocol being signed committing the Britain and the USA to supply Russia with 400 aircraft immediately and 500 aircraft per month until the 30th June 1942. There-after the protocol would be renewable annually. Further, both countries undertook to deliver 41,000 tons of Aluminium immediately and 6,000 tons of rubber and 1,500 tons of tin per month. Food and medical supply's were also included.
02/10/1941 Army Group Centre launches operation 'Typhoon', the main offensive towards Moscow. Hitler tells his troops: ‘Today is the beginning of the last great battle of the year'. Army Group South begins an advance against Kursk and Kharkov.
03/10/1941 Hitler tells the German people that Russian 'has already been broken and will never rise again'. Troops of Army Group Centre capture Orel.
05/10/1941 Advancing in the southern Ukraine, Panzer Group 1 reaches the Sea of Azov.
07/10/1941 Stalin lifts ban on religion in Russia to boost morale. German advance on Moscow continues with the capture of Vyasma.
09/10/1941 Hitler announces that the war in the East, for all intents and purposes, has already been decided in favour of the Reich.
10/10/1941 The 250th 'Blue' Division, made up of Spanish volunteers and formed within days of the German attack on the Soviet Union, goes into action against the Russians for the first time in the sector between Lake Illmen and the west bank of the Volkhov river. General Zhukov is put in charge of the West Front for the defence of Moscow. Army Group South concludes the battle along the Sea of Azov and takes 100,000 prisoners.
11/10/1941 Rumours of an impending capture of Moscow by the German Army cause thousands of civilians to flee the city.
12/10/1941 Army Group Centre captures Kaluga and Bryansk. Women and children evacuated from Moscow.
13/10/1941 German forces of Army Group Centre capture Kalinin, just 100 miles to the West of Moscow.
14/10/1941 Army Group Centre wipes out the Russian pocket at Bryansk, but only capture about 50,000 prisoners. The rain and mud begins to impede the German advance, but German troops manage to capture Rzhev. Hitler orders that Moscow is to be enveloped, rather that assaulted directly. Russian troops fall back in the southern Ukraine as the Germans make for the port of Rostov.
16/10/1941 Moscow now considered in real jeopardy. Following the evacuation of the Soviet government and diplomatic corps from Moscow to Kuibyshev, panic begins to spread among the civilian population, with thousands fleeing the city to places further east, but Stalin decides to stay. Odessa falls to the Romanians after a Soviet evacuation by sea. During the 2 month siege, the Romanians have suffered 98,000 casualties.
17/10/1941 Taganrog on the Sea of Azov is captured by Army Group South.
18/10/1941 German units are now only 80 miles west of Moscow.
19/10/1941 Army Group Centre finally clears the Vyazma pocket capturing 670,000 Russians, 1,000 tanks and 4,000 guns. Stalin declares state of siege in Moscow and orders its defence to the last.
21/10/1941 Units of 6th Army capture Stalino in the industrial Donets Basin.
24/10/1941 Army Group South takes Kharkov and Belgorod.
27/10/1941 The Russians launch numerous counter-attacks around Moscow in an attempt to halt the German advance. 11th Army forces a breakthrough at Perekop, thus opening the gate to the Crimean peninsula.
29/10/1941 Germans troops advance in strength, down in to the Crimea, forcing the Russians to fall back in to Sevastopol.
30/10/1941 The worsening weather and seas of mud bring the German offensive against Moscow almost to a standstill. This gives the Red Army precious time to reinforce their defences in front of Moscow.
 
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01/11/1941 German troops of the 11th Army take Simferopol, the capital of the Crimea and close in on Sevastopol.
03/11/1941 Germans troops capture Kursk.
04/11/1941 Units of 11th Army capture Feodosiya in the Crimea.
06/11/1941 Stalin claims Axis casualties on Eastern Front now 4.5 million, when actually less than 700,000. The first cases of frostbite in the German Army are recorded.
07/11/1941 Speaking from Red Square in Moscow, with the spearheads of the Wehrmacht less than 100 miles from the capital, Stalin predicts that 'the Fascist German invaders are facing disaster'. The German High Command decides to resume the advance on Moscow as soon as possible, although by now it is estimated that 80 Russian divisions stand in their way.
08/11/1941 Army Group North advances across the Volkhov river and captures Tikhivin. Hitler claims Russian losses are 8 - 10 million, which is perhaps double the truth.
09/11/1941 Germans capture Yalta in Crimea.
13/11/1941 Temperature near Moscow drops to -80°F (-22.2°C).
15/11/1941 In temperatures of -20°C, Army Group Centre resumes its offensive against Moscow, employing Panzer Groups 1, 2 and 3, as well as the 2nd, 4th and 9th Armies.
16/11/1941 The German 11th Army takes Kerch in the eastern Crimea, although Sevastopol still holds out.
17/11/1941 The Germans establish the post of Reichskommissariat Ostland under Alfred Rosenberg, to administer the recently conquered territories in the east. Siberian troops are heavily engaged in front of Moscow.
22/11/1941 The 3rd Panzer Korps captures Rostov-on-Don.
23/11/1941 German troops are now only 35 miles north-west of Moscow.
25/11/1941 The Germans continue their advance against Moscow, throwing all their available strength in to the attack in a final attempt to capture the Russian capital.
27/11/1941 German Panzer’s only 19 miles from Moscow. Some armed patrols have penetrated in to the western suburbs of the city and managed to get a good look at the Kremlin.
28/11/1941 Overextended and short of supplies, the 3rd Panzer Korps evacuates Rostov and withdraws to the Mius river, 30 miles to the West.
29/11/1941 Depleted by continuous savage fighting, blizzards and sub-zero temperatures, Army Group Centre's offensive begins to grind to a halt as German units find it increasingly difficult to make ground. The Russians launch a counter-attack at Rostov-on-Don, forcing the German to evacuate the city and withdraw west towards the river Mius.
 
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02/12/1941 Germans patrols are just five miles from the Kremlin.
04/12/1941 Temperature falls to -31°F (-37°C) on Russian Front.
05/12/1941 With the main forces of Army Group Centre just 19 miles from Moscow, Hitler abandons the offensive for winter and agrees to some local withdrawals to more defensive terrain. Zhukov launches a counter-offensive across the frozen upper Volga in the area of Kalinin, to the northwest of Moscow. He uses Konev's Kalinin Front for the purpose, but despite the severe cold and exhaustion of the German troops, his forces meet severe resistance, with only the 31st Army enjoying any success as it pushed towards Turginovo. Hungary declares war on Britain. Romania declares war on Britain.
06/12/1941 Zhukov extends the Red Army's counter-offensive along the whole Moscow axis in an attempt to prevent Panzer Groups 3 and 4 from outflanking Moscow from the northeast. To launch this offensive, Zhukov uses 4 armies on the right flank of his own West Front.
07/12/1941 Field Marshal von Brauchitsch after suffering a recent heart attack tenders his resignation to Hitler, although this is not accepted immediately. Zhukov issues orders to the left flank armies of his West Front to begin offensive operations against Panzer Group 2, which is attempting to withdraw out of a salient near Tula. The aim of this offensive would be to cut off Panzer Group 2 and destroy it in the area of Stalinogorsk.
08/12/1941 The Soviet offensive against Army Group Centre succeeds in breaking through the German lines in many places, causing hasty withdrawals by ill-prepared and frost-bitten troops that are forced to abandon much heavy equipment that was immobilised by the below-zero weather.
09/12/1941 The Red Army recaptures Tikhivin. Zhukov issues an order forbidding frontal attacks, in favour of envelopments and outflanking maneuvers, as he says frontal attacks merely allow the Germans to withdraw in good order.
12/12/1941 Hungary declares war on the USA. Romania declares war on the USA.
13/12/1941 The Soviet press issues a triumphant statement on the repulse of the German Armies before Moscow. The Red Army launches a new counter-offensive using Timoshenko's South West Front in an attack northwest against the juncture of Panzer Group 2 and the German 2nd Army between Yelets and Livny. This results in Panzer Group 2's right flank being left open as the 2nd Army is forced to withdraw in order to save itself. Field Marshal von Brauchitsch meets Field Marshal von Bock, C-in-C of Army Group Centre and decide that Army Group Centre must withdraw some 90 miles west to take up a 'winter line'. Secret orders are passed to this effect.
14/12/1941 As German forces evacuate Kalinin, 100 miles to the Northwest of Moscow, Hitler furious at what he sees as weakness by his Generals, countermands Field Marshal von Brauchitsch's plans for withdrawal.
15/12/1941 Stalin orders all functions of the Soviet state to relocate back to Moscow now that he is sure that the threat to the capital has been removed. Stalin also orders that the counter offensive should be extended along the whole of the eastern front. Klin is recaptured by the Red Army. Stalin orders that Army Group Centre should be destroyed by a double envelopment from the north and south.
18/12/1941 Field Marshal von Brauchitsch's resignation as head of OKH is accepted by Hitler, who now assumes personal command of the Army and its operations on the Eastern front. Hitler sacks Army Group Centre's commander, Field Marshal von Bock and replaces him with Field Marshal von Kluge. Stalin creates the Bryansk Front, which is to operate between the West and South West Fronts and lend added weight to the southern prong of the double envelopment of Army Group Centre.
19/12/1941 Hitler orders that there should be 'No withdrawal’ by the German Army and that it should stand and fight where it is.
20/12/1941 German forces of Army Group Centre retreating from before Moscow reach a new defensive line more than 100km to the west, where, following strict orders by Hitler, they are to stand and fight off any further Soviet advances.
21/12/1941 Typhus reported to be sweeping through the German forces along the Russian front.
25/12/1941 Over 3,000 starve to death in Leningrad. Hitler removes Guderian from command of Panzer Group 2.
26/12/1941 The Russians land on the Kerch Peninsula in an attempt to relieve the siege of Sevastopol.
27/12/1941 The Red Army continues its counter-offensive in the Kalinin area.
29/12/1941 Soviet troops make an amphibious landing at Feodosiya on the south coast of the Crimea in order to relive pressure against Sevastopol and hopefully clear the Germans from the Crimea.
30/12/1941 The Russian success in the Crimea continues as the Germans make a hurried evacuation of Kerch.
31/12/1941 All further German attacks against the Crimean fortress of Sevastopol are halted for the winter.
 

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