T-34 tanks enter Berlin's suburbs after fighting their way through the capital's outer defenses.
Eastern Europe!
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12/01/1945 Koniev's 1st Ukrainian Front launches a major winter offensive from its bridgehead across the Vistula at Baranov in southern Poland.
13/01/1945 Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front begins an offensive toward Pillkallen in East Prussia, against which their is stiff resistance from the 3rd Panzer Army.
14/01/1945 Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front continues its attacks South of Warsaw from two Vistula bridgeheads, one of which holds 400,000 men and 1,700 tanks. Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front begins its offensive from its Narev bridgehead against Elbing in East Prussia.
15/01/1945 During its drive toward the Oder river, the Red Army captures Kielce in western Poland.
17/01/1945 Russians forces cross the Warthe and advance 100-miles on a 160-mile front forcing the Germans to evacuate Warsaw, which falls that same day. The German defenders encircled at Budapest withdraw to Buda on the western bank of the Danube. The Red Army captures Czenstochova.
18/01/1945 German troops evacuate Kracow. A German offensive begins from Lake Balaton, with the aim of lifting the Red Army's siege of Budapest.
19/01/1945 The Russians cross 1939 Poland-Silesia frontier taking Kracow. East Prussia is also entered from south by Russian troops. Red Army forces capture Lodz.
21/01/1945 Tannenburg is taken by Red Army, but only after the Germans blow up the memorial.
22/01/1945 The Red Army captures Insterburg and Allenstein in East Prussia.
23/01/1945 The 5th Guards Tank Army enters Elbing on Baltic and Koniev reaches the river Oder in Silesia. The Kriegsmarine begins the evacuation by sea of hundreds of thousands of civilian refugees from East Prussia and the Danzig area, the Red Army having cut all land communications with the rest of Germany.
24/01/1945 German forces begin evacuating Slovakia. The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Oppeln and Gleiwitz in Upper Silesia.
25/01/1945 Zhukov cuts off the Fortress city of Posen which holds 66,000 Germans and continues his 50-mile a day advance.
26/01/1945 Himmler is put in command of Army Group Vistula by Hitler. The Russians isolate three German armies in East Prussia. The Red Army captures Kattowitz in Upper Silesia. Auschwitz concentration camp is captured by the Russians, but they find fewer than 3,000 survivors as the SS has moved most of the remaining prisoners to camps inside Germany.
27/01/1945 Russians troops capture Memel on Baltic Coast after the German evacuation, which now leaves the whole of Lithuania in Russian hands. German forces begin evacuating the vital coal mining and industrial region of Upper Silesia.
30/01/1945 On the twelfth anniversary of his coming to power, Hitler, calls for fanatical resistance by soldiers and civilians and predicts that "...in this struggle for survival it will not be inner Asia that will conquer, but the people that has defended Europe for centuries against the onslaughts from the East, the German nation..."
31/01/1945 Two of Zhukov’s armies establish a bridgehead on the Oder, to the North of Küstrin and less than 40 miles from Berlin.
 
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01/02/1945
Troops of the 1st Belorussian Front surround the fortress town of Küstrin. Since the 20th January, the Kriegsmarine has evacuated 140,000 civilian refugees and 18,000 wounded soldiers by sea from East Prussia.
02/02/1945 The 1st Belorussian Front reaches the Oder to the South of Frankfurt.
03/02/1945 The Russians capture Landsberg, 80 miles Northeast of Berlin.
04/02/1945 A summit conference between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt opens at Yalta in Crimea, to discuss plans for the treatment of postwar Germany, its division into zones of occupation, reparations and the future Polish western border.
05/02/1945 Red Army troops approach Elbing and Marienburg in East Prussia.
06/02/1945 The 1st Belorussian Front makes further advances to reach the Oder between Küstrin and Frankfurt.
07/02/1945 Russian attacks north of Königsberg are blocked with the help of naval gunfire by the cruisers Scheer and Lützow.
08/02/1945 Koniev breaks out of his Oder bridgehead north of Breslau, with six armies.
09/02/1945 The Red Army encircles Elbing and Posen.
10/02/1945 The 2nd Belorussian Fronts attack towards Neustett is halted by desperate German counter-attacks. The 1st Ukrainian front reaches the Neisse encircling Glogau. Liegnitz is captured by the 1st Ukrainian Front. The remaining defenders of Budapest, some 16,000 men, try to break out from Budapest, although most are killed or captured.
11/02/1945 The Yalta Conference ends. The Red Army the encirclement of the fortress city of Küstrin on the Oder.
12/02/1945 Simultaneous announcements in Moscow, London and Washington about the Yalta agreement. Agreement is reached about the allied occupation of Germany, the founding of the United Nations, the "resettlement" of the inhabitants of the eastern German territories to be ceded to Poland and the entry of the Soviet Union into the war against Japan. Thus far, the Kriegsmarine has evacuated 374,000 German refugees by sea from East and West Prussia.
13/02/1945 Budapest is reported as fully captured by the Russians. The Red Army captures Schneidemül in Pomerania.
14/02/1945 The 1st Ukrainian Front encircles Breslau which has been declared a fortress under the command of Gauleiter Hanke.
15/02/1945 Russian troops are now covering the approaches to Danzig. The Red Army captures Sagan in Silesia. The German 11th SS Army begins a counterattack 'Operation Sonnenwende' with three Korps (39th Panzer, 3rd SS Panzer and the 10th SS Korps). However, only the 3rd SS Panzer Korps (11th SS Panzer Grenadier Division "Nordland" and the 27th SS Grenadier Division "Langemarck") are ready and begin their attack South towards Arnswalde, about 30-35 kms southeast of Stargard.
16/02/1945 The remaining Korps of the 11th SS Army launch their attacks in support of 'Operation Sonnenwende'.
18/02/1945 The Red Army encircles Graudenz on the Vistula. Troops of the 11th SS Army are brought to a stand still by stiffening Soviet resistance to 'Operation Sonnenwende'.
19/02/1945 German forces re-establish communications between Königsberg and the port of Pillau, thus again enabling tens of thousands of German refugees to be evacuated to the west by ships of the Kriegsmarine. 'Operation Sonnenwende' is finally ended in the face of ever strengthening Red Army resistance. The operation was a complete military failure, although did show that the German Army could still organise and mount limited counter-attacks.
20/02/1945 Red Army attacks against the lines of Army Group Courland fail in the face of stubborn German resistance.
21/02/1945 The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Guben.
23/02/1945 The Russians capture the fortress of Posen after a month-long siege.
24/02/1945 A German counter attack wipes out the Russian Hron bridgehead over the Danube to the northwest of Budapest.
26/02/1945 Army Group Courland repulses heavy Red Army attacks in the area of Prekuln.
27/02/1945 Under Russian pressure, the Romanian King, Michael I is forced to appoint a Communist government.
28/02/1945 The 2nd Belorussian Front captures Neustettin. The Red Army suspends all further offensive operations against the lines of Army Group Courland.
 
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01/03/1945 Units of Army Group Centre recapture Lauban in lower Silesia.
04/03/1945 The First Belorussian Front breaks through at Stargard and drives towards Stettin and also establishes a new bridgehead across the Oder to the South of Frankfurt.
05/03/1945 The German 2nd Army is cut off in Pomerania as the Russian 19th Army reaches the Baltic. The fortress city of Graudenz on the Vistula surrenders to troops of the 2nd Belorussian Front.
06/03/1945 The 2nd Panzer and 6th SS Panzer Armies launch a major counter-attack from Lake Balaton towards Budapest.
08/03/1945 The Red Army penetrates into the southern suburbs of Breslau.
10/03/1945 The 2nd Belorussian Front captures Zoppot, during its attack towards Danzig. The Kriegsmarine evacuates 25,000 civilian refugees from the besieged Baltic fortress of Kolberg in Pomerania.
11/03/1945 The Red Army advances towards Gotenhafen, a vital port of embarkation for tens of thousands of refugees from East Prussia.
13/03/1945 The 2nd Belorussian Front launches an offensive against the Braunsberg pocket to the South of Königsberg.
14/03/1945 German counterattacks to recapture the oilfields near Lake Balaton come to an end. The Red Army cuts all communications between Königsberg and the German forces fighting in the Braunsberg pocket.
15/03/1945 The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front begins an offensive in the Ratibor area of Upper Silesia.
16/03/1945 Two fresh Soviet armies of the 3rd Ukrainian Front counter attack the German offensive towards Budapest.
18/03/1945 Kolberg falls to the Polish 1st Army, of the 2nd Belorussian Front, although the Germans manage to evacuate 80,000 refugees and wounded first.
20/03/1945 German troops of Army Group Weichsel evacuate their bridgehead across the Oder at Stettin. The Russians capture Braunsberg, 40 miles South of Königsberg.
21/03/1945 The Russians capture Stuhlweissenburg in Hungary.
23/03/1945 The Russians reach the outskirts of Danzig and Gotenhafen.
24/03/1945 The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Neisse in Upper Silesia.
26/03/1945 The Russians take Papa and Devecser, both German strong points covering the approaches to the Austrian border. The Reichsführer-SS is replaced by General Heinrici as Commander in Chief of Army Group Weichsel.
27/03/1945 Bitter street fighting in Danzig as the Russians force their way into the city's defenses. A German counterattack from the Frankfurt bridgehead toward Küstrin bogs down after only a few miles.
28/03/1945 The 1st Belorussian Front captures Gotenhafen (Gdynia) north of Danzig, along with 9,000 prisoners, after a long struggle. Hitler replaces General Guderian with General Krebs as chief of OKH.
29/03/1945 Troops of the 1st Belorussian Front finally capture the fortress town of Küstrin against desperate German resistance. The Russians seize the oilfields South of Komorn in Hungary, the last source of petroleum for the German war effort.
30/03/1945 Russians troops finally capture Danzig, along with 45 U-boats and 10,000 prisoners. Breslau and Glogau are surrounded, 180 miles South East of Berlin. Russian troops cross the Austrian border to the North of Koszeg. German troops of Army Group Weichsel evacuate their last remaining bridgehead at Wollin to the North of Stettin.
31/03/1945 The Russians enters German territory near Sopron in Hungary. The Russian capture Ratibor in Upper Silesia.
 
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01/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian Front capture Sopron in Hungary, a vital road junction between Budapest and Vienna and also reaches Wiener Neustadt as it continues its advance toward Vienna. The fighting in Breslau continues.
02/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian Front and Bulgarian forces take Nagykanizsa, thereby gaining control of the main Hungarian oil production region. 2nd Ukrainian front under Malinovsky conquers the industrial area of Mosonmagyarovar and reaches the Austrian border between Dounau and the Neusiedler lake.
03/04/1945 The Austrian resistance leader Major Szokoll and Russian military authorities confer about co-operation on the Russian offensive against Vienna. The 2nd Ukrainian front advances close to Vienna. The Russians breaches the German defensive lines between Wiener Neustadt and Neusiedler lake. Hard fighting continues as the Red Army advances towards Bratislava.
04/04/1945 The Russian 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian front complete the liberation of Hungary. Troops of the 2nd Ukrainian front capture Bratislava. The Germans forces counterattack in Moravska-Ostrava and Nitra.
05/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian Front reaches the railway North West of Vienna, cutting rail link with Linz.
06/04/1945 Preceded by a tremendous artillery and air bombardment, the 3rd Belorussian Front with Four armies, 137,000 men, 530 tanks and 2,400 aircraft begin their final assault against Königsberg, which is held by 35,000 Germans troops. The Battle for Vienna begins.
07/04/1945 Army Group Centre under General Schörner continues with its attacks against the 2nd and 4th Ukrainian front.
08/04/1945 The 2nd Ukrainian front continues its advance into northern Czechoslovakia and establishes a bridgehead across the rivers Morava and Donau (East and Northeast of Vienna). Heavy fighting in the centre of Vienna. The Red Air Force drops 1,500 tons of bombs on Königsberg.
09/04/1945 Russians secure Königsberg, after the commander of "fortress Königsberg" General Lasch surrenders.
10/04/1945 With the battle of Vienna ongoing, the German 6th SS Panzer Army succeeds in defeating fierce Russian attacks into the districts of Wiener Neustadt and to the west of Baden. The besieged Germans in Breslau continue to repel the repeated Russian attacks. A German war communiqué now declares that the resistance in Königsberg has ceased, but that no surrender has occurred.
11/04/1945 The Russians now reaches the centre of Vienna, capturing the parliament and town hall buildings.
12/04/1945 A German war communiqué confesses that Königsberg did surrender and announces the death penalty for the fortresses commander, General Lasch.
13/04/1945 Troops of the Russian 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian front complete the capture of Vienna.
14/04/1945 The Germans announce that Army Group Weichsel under General Henrici, is being heavily engaged by the Russians at Frankfurt an der Oder.
15/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian front occupies Radkesburg during its offensive against the industrial area of Mührisch-Ostrau in Moravia. The 2nd Ukrainian front attacks towards Brno in Czechoslovakia.
16/04/1945 Hitler issues the last Order of the Day to the Eastern Front, saying ‘He who gives orders to retreat . . . is to be shot on the spot’ as the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Ukrainian Front start the final offensive on Berlin from along the Oder-Neisse line.
17/04/1945 The battle for Berlin escalates a breakthrough is made by the 1st Ukrainian front. However, the 1st Belorussian Fronts offensive against Berlin is stalled by tenacious German resistance on the Seelow Heights, 2 miles West of the Oder, with great losses of troops and tanks for the Russians. The situation for the German 6th SS Panzer Army in Austria is now critical at St.Polten. The Russians occupies Wilhelmsburg.
18/04/1945 Between Stettin and Schwedt the 2nd Belorussian front breaks through the Oder defenses, pressuring Army Group Weichsel even more. The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Forst on the Neisse river. North of Frankfurt, while the 1st Belorussian Front continues its attack to take the Seelow Heights, gradually wearing down the vastly outnumbered German defenders.
19/04/1945 The 1st Belorussian Front finally breaks through the German defenses on the Seelow heights, despite heavy losses in men and tanks (over 400 in two days) and races towards Berlin.
20/04/1945 Russian artillery begins to shell Berlin. The Germans desperately counterattack both North and South of Frankfurt am der Oder. A Furious battle takes place at Sternbeck and Protzel. In Czechoslovakia the Russian pressure increases at Moravska-Ostrava and Brno.
21/04/1945 The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front captures Bautzen and Cottbus 70 miles southeast of Berlin. German troops still hold out in the port of Pillau.
22/04/1945 Hitler decides to stay in Berlin to the end. The 1st Belorussian Front penetrates into the northern and eastern suburbs of Berlin.
25/04/1945 Russian and U.S. troops meet at Torgau on Elbe, 60 miles West of Berlin. Russian units of the 1st Belorussian and 1st Ukrainian Fronts meet at Kietzen west of Berlin, meaning that eight Russian armies have now surrounded Berlin in a vice like grip. The suburbs Tegel and Reinickendorf fall into Russian hands. A relief attack by the III Panzer Korps from the area of Eberswalde 50 miles northeast of Berlin fails.
26/04/1945 The 2nd Belorussian front captures Stettin on the river Oder, while the 3rd Belorussian Front captures the Baltic port of Pillau, 20 miles West of Königsberg. General Wenck embarks on the last German offensive to relieve Berlin, but only manages to reach Ferch on the 27th April, before the offensive grinds to a halt. The remnants of 9th Army are cut off and surrounded in the Halbe pocket 30 miles southwest of Frankfurt am der Oder. The 2nd Ukrainian Front captures Brno, in Czechoslovakia.
27/04/1945 The Russians take Wittemberge on Elbe. Russian troops reach the Alexanderplatz in Berlin and Spandau is taken. The 2nd Belorussian front advances in Pomerania seizes Prenzlau and Angermunde, 70 miles northwest of Berlin. The German 9th Army tries to reach Berlin from the southeast and even counterattacks at Zossen. The German 20th Army does the same Southeast of Belzig. The German High command confesses that the last German forces in Pillau, East Prussia have surrendered.
28/04/1945 Russian forces are fighting in the Wilhelmstrasse and reach the Anhalt Station which is just half a mile of the Führerbunker.
29/04/1945 During the night Hitler marries Eva Braun, his mistress, writes a will and appoints Admiral Donitz as his successor. The 2nd Belorussian front advances fast in the Stralsund direction and seizes Anklam. In Berlin furious fighting takes place around the Reichstag, Chancellery and along Potsdamer Strasse. In Cottbus, South of Berlin, German troops are still holding the Russians back.
30/04/1945 With the Red Army only a few hundred yards away, Hitler commits suicide with Eva Braun in the Reich Chancellery bunker at 1530hrs and their bodies immediately incinerated with gasoline by SS bodyguards. A Sergeant of the Russian Army plant the Red Flag on top of the Reichstag building at 2.30 pm. As the final Russian assault on Tiergarten begins, Goebbels and Bormann send General Krebs, Chief of the General Staff to the headquarters of Marshal Zhukov with a permit to make an armistice, but Zhukov refuses and demands an unconditional surrender. Troops of the 4th Ukrainian front capture Moravska Ostrava. Fighting continues in Breslau, as the German garrison refuses to surrender.
 
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01/05/1945 Grossadmiral Dönitz, following the death of Hitler, assumes his duties as the new German head of state. He orders the utmost resistance in the East where tens of thousands of German civilians are still trying to escape from the stampeding Red Army.
02/05/1945 General Weidling, the commander of Berlins Garrison meets with General Chuikov and accepts his terms of unconditional surrender of Berlin. The garrison in Berlin surrenders to 1st Belorussian and 1st Ukrainian Armies at 3pm local time. During the 2 week battle for the German Capital, the Russians suffer more than 300,000 casualties and while it is hard to estimate German casualties, the figure of 480,000 German prisoners says a lot.
03/05/1945 The Russians make contact with the U.S. 9th Army in the Wismar area.
05/05/1945 A civilian uprising begins in Prague and is aided by defecting units of the anti-Bolshevist Vlasov Army.
06/05/1945 Breslau surrenders after an 82-day siege, during which the Russians inflicted 29,000 civilian and military casualties and took more than 40,000 prisoners.
07/05/1945 The German Chief-of-Staff, General Jodl, signs the unconditional surrender to the Russians and western allies at 2.41am. Operations are to cease 1 minute after 12pm GMT on the 8th of May 1945.
08/05/1945 In deference to the Russians, the surrender ceremony to the western allies at Rheims of the previous day is repeated before Marshall Zhukov and other Soviet generals at Karlshorst, a suburb of Berlin. After radio appeals early in the day for protection against heavy German shelling, the Prague resistance reaches an agreement with the Germans for the capitulation of the city, as the U.S. 4th Armoured Division from the West and Koniev’s troops from the East approach. The last convoys of German refugees from Eastern Germany arrive in western Baltic ports, ending the largest rescue operation by sea in history. Since the 25th January, a total of 420,000 civilians and wounded soldiers have been evacuated.
09/05/1945 Stalin announces the end of war. German forces of Army Group Kurland surrender.
10/05/1945 Russians troops are now in control of Prague after five days of fierce street fighting between German troops and Czech Partisans comes to an end, during which 5,000 civilians have been killed.
11/05/1945 The Red Army launches a final assault against the remnants of Army Group Centre, which is still holding out in Moravia.
12/05/1945 General Vlasov, commander of the anti-Bolshevist Russian Liberation Army is handed over to the Russians by the Americans and will be executed for treason in August, 1946.
13/05/1945 The last pockets of German resistance in Czechoslovakia are crushed by the Red Army.
24/05/1945 The exchange of Russian POW's for U.S. and British POW's begins at pre-arranged points in Germany.
 
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05/06/1945 Moscow Radio announces the award of the highest Russian honour, the 'Order of Victory', to Montgomery and Eisenhower.
24/06/1945

A Great Victory Parade in Moscow’s Red Square, sees Zhukov takes the salute in Stalin’s presence.

 
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01/07/1945 The U.S. 2nd Armoured Division from Halle enter Berlin in accordance with the four-power agreement over the division of Germany into zones.
04/07/1945 The British 7th Armoured Division, ‘The Desert Rats’ enters Berlin to establish the British sector.
10/07/1945 The USSR, U.K. and U.S. agree on the administration of greater Berlin and decide that France is to be included.
17/07/1945 The Three-Power Summit Conference opens at Potsdam.
30/07/1945 British, U.S. and French troops enter Vienna.
 
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06/11/1945
Foreign Commissar Molotov announces that Russia will soon have the atomic bomb.
 
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